Friday, September 9, 2011

Ihsan, Tasawuf, dan Psikoterapi

DR. Nurcholis MadjidIn conjunction with the noble morality of education we see the relationship with the teachings kesufian ihsan or Sufism. According K.H. Hashim Muhammad Ash'ari, quoting the Book of al-Ilahiyyah Futuhat, there are eight conditions that must be met by the person who will run the Order:Qashd saheeh, that is, in undergoing the Order that he must have the correct destination, that is the intention of living it as ubudiyyah, the servitude to God Almighty Righteous (al-Haqq), and intends to meet haqq al-rubbiyyah, namely the right of the Deity Allah Ta ' style, not to reach for sacred or rank, nor is it to obtain results which are lust like to praise others and so on;

Shidq Sharif, honesty means a firm, namely that the students must justify and looked at his teacher as having secrets privilege (sir al-khushushiyyah) that will bring students into the presence of the Divine or hadlrat al-Ilahiyyah;
Mardliyyah adab, that is, manners blessed, namely that people who follow the Order must be running manners justified religious teachings, such as the attitude of compassion to people of lower, respect for others each and higher, honest, fair and straight to the self own, and do not give help to others just because of self-interest;
Ahwal zakiyyah that is, behavior that is clean, that people entered the Order is his behavior and utterances should be in line with the Shari'ah of Prophet Muhammad.;
Hifz al-hurma, that is, maintain the honor, which is that people who follow the Order must respect the teacher, absent or unseen, living or dead, and respecting fellow Muslim brothers, stoic attitudes of hostility and sisters, with respect for people of higher and love to people of lower;
Husn al-khidmah, that is, people who entered the Order should enhance the quality of service to teachers, on a fellow Muslim brothers, and to Allah. By running all His commands and stay away from all prohibitions of al-Siddiq al-and that's un-maqshud al-a'dzham (great goal) follow the Order;
Raf 'al-Himma, that is, enhance the quality of care determination, namely that people do not enter the Order for the purposes of the world and the hereafter, but because it wanted to achieve ma'rifat khashshah (ma'rifat or special knowledge or special) of Allah.;
Nufudz al-'azimah, that is, the preservation of determination and purpose, namely that the person who entered the Order shall preserve the commitment and goals, maintaining continuity running thariqatnya, to achieve ma'rifat khashshah of Allaah, and if he did do good with sustainable so successful (See, Muhammad Hashim Ash'ari, al-al-Muntatshirah Durrar fi al-Masa'il al-Tis' al'Asyarah, with no place of publication, 1359 H/1940 M, p.. 16-17).

KH. Hashim Ash'ari also asserts that the purpose of running is to enhance the manners, manners or akhlaq.Ia quoting a verse from the Book of Al-Mabahits al-Ashliyyah, thus:

"The purpose of education is the Order manners, in all behavior, and that's madzhabnya."

Citing Abu al-Hasan al-Syadzili, KH. Hashim Ash'ari explores four manners that one can not be called a follower of the Order if it does not go through, however the extent of knowledge of the person. Four manners or morality of it is:
Steer clear of all persons acting dzalim, such as rulers or rich people who do injustice to others;
Honoring those who focus on the afterlife;
Helping the needy;
Always perform prayers in congregation with the crowd said KH Hashim next Ash'ari, "It has been said Imam al-Din Ibn Muhy al'Arabi, ra. The four-character, then anyone who runs all four, he really has combined all the virtues, namely:
Ta'zhim hurumat al-Muslims, that is, to uphold the honor of all Muslims;
Al-fuqara solemn wa al-masakin, that is, serving the needy and poor;
Wal-inshaf min nafsihi, meaning, honest and fair about yourself;
Tark al-intishar la-ha, that is, not give aid merely because of self-interest. "
Furthermore, KH. Hashim Ash'ari, citing Suhrawardi, explaining that the way the Sufis is the intention to cleanse the soul and keep the passions, and to escape from various forms of 'ujub, takabbur, riya' and hubb al-dunya (amazed at myself, arrogant , selfless love, and love of earthly life), and others, manners and undergo a spiritual nature, as sincere, humble (tawadldlu), resignation (lean and trust in God), always gives the heart's favor on each event and to the people Other (Ridla), and so on, and that they might obtain from God ma'rifat and manners in the presence of God (ibid, p.. 18).
Kesufian a religious branch of Islam that often seemed controversial. Some characters become the target of criticism, even the torture or murder, due to the establishment or the practice of those who are deemed to deviate from the true religion.
Although KH. Hashim Ash'ari, as is evident from the above so appreciate Sufism and Sufis, but he is known to be very hard on every symptom of irregularities in the Order practice. This attitude he expressed in his treatise he wrote in 1360 H. Al-Tibyanfi al-nahy 'an al-Arham Muqatha'at wa al-Aqarib wa al-Ikhwan (New York: Printing NU, tt.).
So charity is manifested in Sufism, and then practiced through the teachings of the Order, in the last analysis is an insight into the whole, truth, or truth in the dimensions of the piece. Ability to capture the full truth that the most difficult level attainable by man, even the most elusive. The reason is, the whole truth in its dimensions, it is in itself contains a paradox, and people can learn to catch the whole truth if he is trained to see the paradoxes and tried to capture the essence of what lies behind the outward appearance of it.
A discussion of the full truth in the paradoxical form is usually done with reference to the story in the Bible about Moses., With one described as a servant of God who obtained 'ladunni science, the science which is given directly by God. These figures in the literature usually identified as kesufian Khidlir Prophet (al-Khidlr), which presumably is the name of the symbol of the truth which is always green agar and never die (khidlr means green).
The story is told how a great prophet like Moses did not hold, and protested loudly ever see behavior that the wise man and became his teacher, as its actions damage the boat belonged to a poor fisherman, killing the boy who was playing and enforce the wallhouse nearly collapsed in a village whose inhabitants being unfriendly to both of them.And then Moses, aware of the vagaries of his teacher when he obtained the information when they were about to break: the teacher's poor destructive fishing boat, is just to save his precious from the danger of robbers who chose the boats - which look good and intact; he killed the boy because he knew from God that the child will grow up to be criminals and make miserable parents, while his parents were devout men, women, and he also knew that God would replace it with a child who is more holy, he upheld the wallhouse which collapsed, because in it there is a property of the orphan who now lives in town and he intends to protect the treasure that can be utilized by the orphans and survivors of the disruption theft akhlaqnya villagers low.

The appearance of paradoxical figures kesufian already quite well known. Even in a very general assumption, the odds are often just regarded as part of the character qualities such as "saints" or the beloved of Allah (wali). But precisely here lies the problem of the most complicated, that is, according to the philosophers kesufian own, no one guardian who claimed to be a guardian, let alone do the things that are strange to be known as a guardian, let alone do the things that are strange to be known as a guardian . Also no one knows that a person's guardian except a guardian himself. As said by the author of al-Afkar Nata'ij was quoted as saying ole KH. Hasyim Asyari: A guardian will not open the door of fame and recognition, even if if he is able to bury him he certainly would do it. So anyone who wanted him stand out, including the class of the Order he was not the slightest, quite the opposite, he was opposed to their behavior (class of the Order). (Muhammad Hashim Ash'ari, Al-Durar among others Muntatsirah fi al-Masa'il al-Tis' al-'Asyarah, "in op cit, p.. 8-9)
The view of the wholeness of truth that contains this paradox is also reflected in statements about the nature or attitude of God himself, as for instance, that He is the Beginning and the End, who was born and the Mind, and that He is Forgiving and Merciful, but also Supreme Strikes azhab him: "Tell My servants that I am indeed the Most Forgiving and Merciful, and that the real azabku is a very painful punishment." (Surah al-Hijr 15:49-50).

Because God is the Almighty (Munday; wahid), it is not possible manifestation of His consists of two parts, first as the All-Forgiving and Most Merciful, and the second as the doom of his most poignant. The paradox is only a relative form, while its absolute form is behind the paradox, that precisely because kemutlakannya then not be able to catch it.
Humans only have to train yourself to look at the paradoxes, and try to get a taste (in the words of al-Ghazali, dzawq) the full truth behind the paradoxes, without necessarily knowing the absolute essence and can not be achieved by the relative that.
Citing Treatise Qusyayriyyah and syarahnya, KH. Hashim Ash'ari that monotheism recognize three levels: the first assessment that the existence of God, secondly, the knowledge (the science and theory) that the existence of God is one and third, the emergence of a taste of vision at the All-True (al-Haqq).
The first, is the monotheism of the laity, the second, the exoteric monotheistic scholars (ahl al-Zahir) and the third, is the monotheism of the Sufis who have reached ma'rifat and who have experience of nature. (Hashim Ash'ari, "Al-Durrar," in op. Cit., P.. 10-11).
Legal paradox by Sufis tried intensely internalized it is in fact the law or the Sunnah of Allah (sunnatullah) also, as mentioned in the word of God: "And of everything We have created a form in pairs (ie, consists of two parts paradoxical), that ye contemplate. "(Surah al-Dzariyat 51:49).

"Glory to Him who has created everything in pairs; of everything that grown earth, of themselves (human) itself, and of other things you do not know (ie, can not you understand)." (Sura Yasin 36:36)

A hadith mentions the words of the Prophet. "Berakhlaq ye with the morality of God." With regard to the legal issues of this paradoxical, because the Prophet was of course also meant, among others, to have the attitude that we appreciate the taste, will the full truth, which may consist of paradoxes, by trying to accept the wisdom is behind, such as (supposed) attitude towards the behavior of Moses his teacher, al-Khidlr.
By accepting the reality-kenyataun paradoxical as he believes in the wisdom behind the outward appearance, a person will experience peace or turmoil to "rebel" attitude due to reject the paradoxes can be suppressed. This can have a healing effect restructuring den soul, as it now began many techniques used in healing psychotherapist.
It is said by Prof.. Mohammed Shaalan, Professor of the Department of Neuro-den pschiciatry chairman of Al-Azhar University, Cairo, who see the connection with modern psychology kesufian experience flow CG Jung: "The use paradox is not explicitly described as a technique in Jungian therapy, but the base of it is there. Recently it has been given a name and clarified as technique. Paradoxes serve to bring out a person from complacency of accepting either I or concepts so That a different and higher state of consciousness is Attained IMMEDIATELY. With the Sufis, the use of paradox is not restricted to technique but is a genuine expression of his state of consciousness. By example and action rather than by Preaching and teaching, a Sufi conveys directly to the intuition of his followers the paradoxical nature of truth (Prof. Dr. Mohammed Shaalan, "Some Parallel Practices in the between and the Sufi path of individucation", in J. Marvin Spiegelman, Ph.D., et al., ed., Sufism, Islam and Jungian Psychology (Scottsdale, Arizona: Falcon Press, 1991), p.. 88.
The use of paradox is not clearly described as a technique of "healing" in Jung's therapeutic care, but basically there. Recently, this paradox has been given a name and described as a technique. Paradox is useful to release someone from a sense of complacency in accepting the concepts that are yes or no, so that different levels of consciousness higher den can be immediately achieved.
With a Sufi, the use of paradox is not restricted only as a technique but a genuine expression of Sufi's level of consciousness. Through demonstration and action, rather than through discourse and teaching, a mystic intuition of his followers are directly present (paradoxical nature of truth). A verse confirms that we must be fair as well as doing good deeds that is the word of Allah: "Verily Allah commands justice and charity attitude." (Surah al-Nahl 16:90)

Of the various possible interpretations of the word, do justice to every one is understood within the framework of the view that berkeseimbangan ('adl itself means balance) between the parts that seem paradoxical, without partiality, and with acceptance according to what it is. Then the charity can be interpreted as a sincere effort to appreciate the wisdom behind in terms of paradoxes.
So sincere and resigned attitude, namely Islam, is not possible without the attitude of believing in God, a faith, which produces a positive-optimistic outlook on Him and His creation. From here also seems clear that Islam will lead us to peace (salaam) and safety (Salama), and faith will deliver us to a safe (feel safe) and a sense of shade or protection (mandate), then, finally ihsan will not confuse us toward a happy life (hasanah).

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